Level 2 Level 2 Foundation Certificate

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To achieve a Level 2 Certificate in Coatings Technology, candidates must choose: a minimum of 4 modules from the Complusary Modules section below and 2 modules from any other level. If you click onto the module number, this gives a brief description of the module, and from here you can download a taster version of the module.

Pre-requisites

Level 2 - https://www.gov.uk/what-different-qualification-levels-mean/list-of-qualification-levels

No formal qualifications – Although a basic knowledge of chemistry and physics will be required.

Approved by RSC

of 6 selected

Compulsory Modules

L2
200 Coatings for Life - An Introduction
£375 non BCF member
£275 BCF member

Coatings for Life - An Introduction
This module provides a good grounding of the basics of coatings chemistry and an introduction to the coatings industry. The module is perfect for industry newcomers, those employed at coatings companies in non-technical roles (i.e. marketing, customer service, sales) or anyone interested in learning the basics. The course is delivered online, via CTI's study portal. Upon completion of the module, you will receive your Foundation Certificate in Coatings Chemistry and Industry.

L2
201 General Overview of Coatings
£415 non BCF member
£305 BCF member

This foundation level module provides a general overview of paints, lacquers, varnishes, inks, powder coatings and related products used for coating surfaces. It introduces the various divisions of surface coatings and explains the reasons for their use. It then describes the functions of different types of coating, details the components or raw materials used to make these coatings and the properties each contribute.

The transformation from a liquid (or powder) state to an applied, dried/ stoved film is explained in some detail together with a general review of the main methods of application.

Module 201 is one of a series of 9 modules at foundation level. Following a successful completion of this module, you may proceed to study further modules, selected on the basis of your needs.

L2
202 Media and Solvents
£415 non BCF member
£305 BCF member

In Foundation Level Module 201 media are classified on the basis of their physical properties and then the mechanisms of film formation are described.

In this module, we look at examples of film formers on the basis of their physical form and outline some of the health hazards that can arise in their use. Some of their commonly determined properties are outlined.

Under material properties and test methods, the importance of flow and viscosity measurements are stressed.

The module then goes on to classify solvents on the basis of their chemical groups and behavior. In a practical exercise test methods are used to identify a given sample of hydrocarbon solvent. Attention is paid to the fire and health hazards of solvents.

The film-forming processes of non-convertible resins are then outlined with particular emphasis on nitrocellulose. Finally, an introduction is given to some convertible resins. These are covered in detail in Intermediate Modules.

L2
203 Pigments and their Properties
£415 non BCF member
£305 BCF member

This Foundation Level Module 203 describes and classifies various pigments used in the Coatings Industry, both by type and physical form.

The main properties of pigments are then considered, in particular, particle size and particle size distribution, which are described in some detail, including the importance of oil absorption. The influence of particle size and size distribution on oil absorption are explained in some detail.

A number of important aspects of pigment testing are also explained. These include pigment purity, tint strength and lightning power. This leads on to the optical properties of pigments. Colour principles, the nature of visible light and the optimum conditions needed for the assessment of colour are described along with the importance of colour standards. The problem of metamerism and how to minimise it are also described.

Finally, the module tackles the important area of health and safety and the hazards associated with the handling of pigments. Four types of pigment hazards are explained and the section also covers the precautions, which must be taken to minimise any risk from these hazards.

L2
204 Paint and Ink Manufacture - Rheology
£415 non BCF member
£305 BCF member

The manufacturing process for paints and inks is designed to produce a final product which has a uniform consistency and which conforms to appropriate test standards. These tests ensure that the product can be applied by the end user and that the coating will then dry to provide a film with acceptable properties.

The process involves the intimate mixing of several raw materials - some solid and some liquid - so that they form a stable dispersion. The quality of the dispersion can have a profound effect on the storage properties, ease of application, appearance and performance of the coating.

This module explains the purpose and methods of dispersion, some of the important properties, which govern the process, and the basic tests used to confirm that this has been achieved.

It is expected that it will take approximately 10 hours to complete this module, including the practical work involved.

L2
205 Evaluation
£415 non BCF member
£305 BCF member

This foundation level module provides a general overview of the reasons for and consequences of testing coatings - mostly at the manufacturers, but also at times by the user. The control of variables such as climatic conditions, substrate preparation, film thickness, and timing are considered.

Some methods of testing both the liquid coating and the applied film are described, and the student will have an opportunity to carry out some of these.

L2
206 Surface Preparation
£415 non BCF member
£305 BCF member

Module 206 deals with the first stages in preparing a surfaces prior to the actual application of a surface coating. What is the composition of the surface? What substances are naturally found on the surface and what do we have to do to remove them so that a subsequent coating applied to the surface will adhere?

The module, first of all, examines the nature of the surface itself and the types of surfaces that are coated, ranging from metals to wood-based substances to plastics to masonry materials. The surfaces themselves differ with some being absorbent and others non-absorbent, while some are alkaline in nature. The principal contaminants, rust and mill-scale, and grease, which are found on substrates are considered and general methods of removing them are introduced.

Section 3 deals in detail with the mechanical means of removing rust. The on-site and off-site techniques detailed range from wire-brushing to various methods of shot and grit blasting. The advantages and disadvantages of each are outlined. The final section introduces the various chemical methods of cleaning a surface including degreasing without going into detail of the plant used. (Chemical methods of cleaning and pretreatment are considered in detail in Intermediate module 329.)

L2
207 Powder Coatings - Overview
£415 non BCF member
£305 BCF member

This module describes the various stages in the development of powder coatings to the market, comparing and contrasting them with liquid coatings. The study material covers the basic properties of powders, the methods used in their production and the techniques used to apply them. It also discusses particle size – one of the most important factors in the manufacture of powder coatings.

L2
208 Powder Coating Application and Cure
£415 non BCF member
£305 BCF member

This Foundation Level module provides an understanding of the most important methods used to apply both thermosetting and thermoplastic powder coatings. It begins by introducing these two types of powder, the market areas in which they are used and the two main methods of application.

This is followed by an explanation of the principles of electrostatics and electrostatic spraying and continues with a description of electrostatic spraying equipment, including guns, booths and recovery systems.

Stoving methods and equipment are then described.

Finally, a detailed explanation of the fluidised bed method of powder application and the equipment used completes the module.

L2
209 Paint and Ink Application
£415 non BCF member
£305 BCF member

This module provides a general overview of paints, lacquers, varnishes, related products used for coating surfaces. It introduces the various divisions of surface coatings and explains the reasons for their use. It then describes the functions of different types of coating, details the components or raw materials used to make these coatings and the properties each contribute.

All Other Modules


Level 3

Intermediate Modules

- +
L3
301 Types and Manufacture of Pigments
£415 non BCF member
£305 BCF member

This Intermediate Level Module starts by describing and classifying various pigments and extenders used in the Coatings Industry, both by type and by physical form. The importance of pigment particle shape is presented and examples given of pigments and extenders which fall into these various categories.

The Module goes on to describe the various parts in the pigment manufacturing process, including pigment after treatments. Pigment grinding, classification, filtering, drying and calcining are covered, along with pigment flushing and micronising.

Next, the chemical composition and properties of a number of commonly available white pigments and extenders, are described in some detail, followed by similar sections devoted to the chemical structure and physical properties of some widely used coloured inorganic and organic pigments.

Finally, the main properties of some widely used metallic pigments are summarised.

L3
302 Properties of Pigments
£415 non BCF member
£305 BCF member

Module 302 is concerned overall with the properties of pigments.

The first section of the module describes the general properties of pigments for all coating types, in terms of cost, stability, variability etc. along with specific requirements for those pigments used in powder coatings.

Section 2 is dedicated to the optical properties of pigments, in particular, how pigments can affect the opacity and gloss of coatings.

Section 3 describes the general requirements of pigments for use in the area of powder coatings and the main differences here between inorganic and organic pigments.

Section 4 is concerned with the pigmentation of coatings and describes the importance of Pigment:Binder ratio, Pigment Volume Concentration and Critical Pigment Volume Concentration. The effect of PVC on a number of film properties is discussed. Finally in this section, the effect of pigment particle shape on coating properties is described.

To finish the module, in section 5, pigment test methods used in the area of powder coatings are described for a number of important conditions.

L3
310 Media - Thermoplastics Powders
£415 non BCF member
£305 BCF member

Thermoplastics are the foundation on which powder coating technology was built, and the coating technologist should be aware of the principles that govern their use.
This module describes the types of thermoplastics available for coating applications, their important properties and their uses. The module also serves as a useful general introduction to the nature of polymeric materials.

L3
311 Media – Thermosetting Powders
£415 non BCF member
£305 BCF member

Thermosetting coating powders have gained a sizeable foothold in the industrial coating field. As with any coating, the medium is the predominant factor determining performance.

This module identifies the types of thermosetting media used in the formulation of coating powders, describing some of the basic chemistry involved. Details are given of the important properties which development chemists look for when selecting the component resins and hardeners.

Included in the text are examples of typical raw materials and details of some of the principles involved in creating a coating medium. The module also introduces some of the more recent innovations in the field, which have been developed to improve features such as appearance and performance or to reduce curing temperatures.

L3
312 Testing – Solvents and Resins
£415 non BCF member
£305 BCF member

Module 312 deals with the testing of solvents and resins and is one of a series on the raw materials used in coatings. Earlier studies on raw materials include the foundation module 202, that discusses general properties of resins & solvents and intermediate level 303 that deals with the properties of solvents in some detail.

Module 312 starts by defining solvents and their role in coatings and then explains different ways in which they may be classified. It then goes on to describe the characteristic properties of solvents and explains how their properties may be determined. A practical exercise is included which requires the student to determine the composition of a solvent mixture by measuring some of these properties.

The second half of Module 312 reviews the classification of resin types used in coatings and their characteristic properties. It then proceeds to explain the general tests that are carried out to measure these properties. An outline of the polymerisation processes involved in the manufacture of resins is given and some of the tests carried out during manufacture explained.

Finally, brief reference is made to properties of specific chemical types of resin and the effect of these properties on manufacture and coating performance.

L3
313 The Testing of Pigments
£415 non BCF member
£305 BCF member

Section 1 of this Module is concerned with the testing of a number of important pigment characteristics and properties, such as tinting strength, weathering resistance, resistance to light and heat etc.

Section 2 the importance of contrast ratio is described along with its determination

Section 3 you are encouraged to compare and contrast the properties described in Section 1, for a wide range of pigments which are currently used in the coatings industry.

L3
314 Manufacture – Paint
£415 non BCF member
£305 BCF member

This Intermediate Level module describes the technology and practice of paint manufacture. The basic stages of the manufacturing process are reviewed and the key roles of dispersion and stabilisation explained. The various types of dispersion mill used for paint manufacture are classified and the construction & operation of each class described.

In the last section of the module, a manufacturing flow chart is examined and the efficiency & economics of the process is discussed.

Module 314 is one of a series of modules at intermediate level. Following a successful completion of this module you may proceed to study further modules, selected on the basis of your needs. There are also a series of modules at Advanced Level that you may wish to study at a later date.

L3
315 Manufacture – Ink
£415 non BCF member
£305 BCF member

This module describes the way in which different printing inks are manufactured and discusses the complex mixture of the raw materials that are blended together in a specific formulation to obtain the final properties required for different types of us printing application.

Emphasis will be placed on the choice of grinding vehicle and the methods used to obtain effective pigment dispersion into the grinding vehicle concentrating on the different types of equipment available for producing liquid and paste inks.

You will also be shown how to scale up a laboratory formulation and determine the best method of manufacture for that ink.

L3
316 Manufacture – Powder Coatings
£415 non BCF member
£305 BCF member

Module 316 begins by giving an overview of the processes used in the manufacture of thermosetting and thermoplastic powder coatings and then proceeds to describe the nature of the raw materials used.

Following this outline, a detailed description of each of the separate stages in the manufacturing process for thermosetting powders is provided.

The theory of the dispersion process is examined and the mechanism explained together with a consideration of the extruders used. Grinding and classification are discussed and a description of the plant and processes used provided.

In the final section specific processes used for the manufacture of some thermoplastic powder coatings are explained.

A general consideration of the incorporation of pigments and metallic powders completes this study of powder coatings manufacture.

L3
319 Evaluation of Paints – Physical Properties
£415 non BCF member
£305 BCF member

This module provides details and test procedures relating to the evaluation of paints once applied to ‘standard’ panels. Most of the tests will be carried out in the Paint Manufacturer’s laboratory, although some customers may wish to confirm the property during production of their finished articles.

A list of desirable physical properties is explained, with a discussion on how to prepare for and carry out suitable tests. The student will have an opportunity to carry out some of these.

L3
320 Evaluation of Paints – Chemical and Environmental Properties
£415 non BCF member
£305 BCF member

This module provides details and test procedures relating to the evaluation of paints once applied to ‘standard’ panels. Most of the tests will be carried out in the Paint Manufacturer’s laboratory, although some customers may wish to confirm the property during production of their finished articles.

A list of desirable properties is explained, with a discussion on how to prepare for and carry out suitable tests. The student will have an opportunity to carry out some of these.

L3
322 Evaluation of Coating Powders
£415 non BCF member
£305 BCF member

This module describes the methods commonly used to evaluate thermosetting coating powders, at all stages of development and processing.

As the coatings industry has developed, it has been necessary to invent standard test procedures, in order to define and control the production, application and performance characteristics of our products.

As a relatively recent addition to the coatings range, powders are still in a very innovative phase of their development. Accordingly, there are still many new questions that need to be answered. A cured film of powder coating is often indistinguishable from its liquid equivalent. However, in the powder form, the materials have certain features that demand closer and more specific scrutiny.

L3
323 The Evaluation of Colour
£415 non BCF member
£305 BCF member

This module deals with a number of important aspects of the evaluation of colour.

Section 1 is concerned with the main principles of colour. These include the illuminant , absorption and reflection of light and the workings of the eye, along with certain visual defects.

Section 2 covers colour mixing and pigment selection. Here we look at both additive and subtractive mixing and important considerations to make when selecting pigments for coloured formulations.

Finally, in Section 3, we deal with the important subject of colour measuring instruments. We look at various spectrophotometers and colorimeters and examine their use in quantifying important optical properties of coatings.

L3
324 Paint Application – Spraying
£415 non BCF member
£305 BCF member

Some simple air-assisted methods are usually used in laboratory situations to try out new materials or on quality control of batches under manufacture. Similar equipment is used in small scale or specialist finishing operations, which are then sometimes used on automated situations. For those employed on customer service or sales of paint products the module will give a fuller understanding of the equipment used by potential customers. For customers, many of whom will have automated plants in order to cope with continuous line-production, there is added information about conveyorisation, potential problems, and an opportunity to evaluate or compare alternative methods.

L3
325 Paint Application – Non-Spraying
£415 non BCF member
£305 BCF member

This module provides information on the various methods employed to apply liquid coatings, except spraying which is covered in 324.

The main topic areas are dipping, including Electrophoric, Roller coating, Coil coating, Curtain coating, Brushing, Hand rolling and Padding.

Some simple application methods are usually used in laboratory situations to try out new materials or on quality control of batches under manufacture. Similar equipment is used in small scale or specialist finishing operations, which are then sometimes used on automated situations. For those employed on customer service or sales of paint products the module will give a fuller understanding of the equipment used by potential customers. For customers, many of whom will have automated plants in order to cope with continuous line-production, there is added information about conveyorisation, potential problems, and an opportunity to evaluate or compare alternative methods.

L3
326 Ink Application Technology
£415 non BCF member
£305 BCF member

This module describes the common printing processes commercially used in the United Kingdom. It explains the general principles used to print both liquid and paste ink and discusses the key points of each printing process and the types of press configuration, which are available. It also explains the importance of plate technology and how different product applications need to be printed. The module concentrates on the specific processes of flexography, gravure, offset, lithography, screen and letterpress printing.

Some consideration is given to historical methods, to better illustrate how some of the processes have evolved, and to give a clearer view of the physical processes involved.

The module does not cover the ink-jet or toner based technologies, or techniques such as intaglio relief printing, recess printing or collotype, which are rarely used, except for special purposes.

L3
327 Application Equipment for the Application of Powder Coatings
£415 non BCF member
£305 BCF member

Module 327 contains a comprehensive study of the equipment used to apply powder coatings by electrostatic spraying, fluidised bed and a number of other less widely used application techniques.

Although this module repeats some of the material in the foundation module 208 “Powder Coating Application & Cure”, the main focus of this intermediate level module is on the equipment and methods used on the production line. Also 327 covers a wider range of application techniques.

After reviewing the components and set up of powder coating application lines, the module proceeds with the equipment and methods employed for each application technique.

The final section explains production control procedures including ‘on-line’quality control. This section also discusses problems that may occur on a production line, the causes of these problems and possible solutions.

L3
328 Theory of Application of Powder Coatings
£415 non BCF member
£305 BCF member

Module 328 is concerned with the theory of applying powder coatings. It begins with a brief review of the background to electrostatics, how particles can be charged and the properties of these charged particles. It then goes on to introduce some of the phenomena that occur when applying powder coating by electrostatic spray, including self-limiting, back ionisation, faraday cage effect and overcoating.

The next section deals with the theory of fluidisation of powder and how this influences the design and operation of fluidised bed systems. The design of articles to be coated by the fluidised bed method is included in this section, together with a discussion on the thermal properties of these articles. This section concludes with a review of a typical fluidised bed coating line.

The third section is devoted to a more detailed study of the electrostatics involved in a powder coating spray installation. The accumulation of charge on powder particles, corona charging, tribo-charging, low voltage spray guns are all discussed together with some of the phenomena referred to briefly in section 1.

The final section looks at tests that can be carried out to check and improve the efficiency of powder coating spray lines and some of the equipment available to perform these tests.

L3
329 Application – Metallic Substrates
£415 non BCF member
£305 BCF member

Module 329 is an Intermediate module following on from the Foundation Module 206 on Surface Preparation. In Module 206 a study of the features of a surface and contaminants on the surface of a substrate was made. This was followed by a summary of methods of removal of the contaminants by mechanical means and a preliminary look at the processes where surfaces are cleaned chemically. In Module 329 the processes of chemically cleaning a metal surface and its subsequent chemical pretreatment will be considered in more detail.

Following a review of Module 206 is a more detailed study of the plant used in degreasing including the vapour, liquid and spray baths, and a study of the advantages and disadvantages of the degreasing solvent, trichloroethene. Section 3 considers the cleaning of a metal surface by inorganic means, by treating the surface with acids and alkalis and the effect of this on the metal itself

The final section looks at the chemical basis for chemical pretreatment of metal surfaces, principally iron and aluminium. Phosphating and chromating in different situations and in different coating weights are considered. In addition, anodising as a technique is covered. The situations where each of these three applications are used concludes the module. Included in this section is a practical on phosphate pretreatment.

L3
330 Application – Non-Metallic Substrates
£415 non BCF member
£305 BCF member

In Module 206, we considered the different types of substrates and explained the importance of cleaning surfaces before applying coatings and some of the techniques used to do so. This Module expands upon that basic information, concentrating on a wide variety of non-metallic substrates. We discuss the range of properties and how these affect the techniques available to us for surface preparation and application of coatings.

L3
332 The Curing of Coatings
£415 non BCF member
£305 BCF member

This module is divided into three sections.

Section 1 is concerned with the drying and curing of coatings by both stoving and radiation processes. Both box ovens and conveyorised forced draught ovens are described along with disposal of solvents and waste fumes. Finally in this section, the special requirements of powder coatings are presented.

Section 2 is devoted to radiation curing, where particular emphasis is placed on IR curing, listing both advantages and disadvantages. The principles of UV and electron beam curing are described, along with the importance of oven siting in manufacture.

Finally, in Section 3, the factors affecting choice of application and cure are discussed and practical examples given of the appropriateness of these considerations in practical situations.

L3
333 Coatings – Safety, Health and Environmental Aspects
£415 non BCF member
£305 BCF member

On almost every surface we see there is some form of coating. They enhance the appearance of the finished article and they are essential for the protection of materials. However, the coatings are made of chemicals, many of which have adverse effects on human beings and on other living things. There are mechanical and electrical hazards involved in their manufacture and application and hazards due to flammability and toxicity of components in the coatings. There is the risk of pollution, should they escape to the outside environment.

The law requires that the workplace be safe to work in and that a company does not put employees or others at risk. Lately, greater emphasis has been put on environmental issues, adding to the pressures on the coatings industry. Conservation of resources and pollution control must somehow be balanced against the need for economical and effective coatings.

This module aims to provide a general awareness of the law and of the safety and environmental issues in our particular industry. Hopefully, it may whet the appetite of some readers enough for them to seek formal qualifications in the subject.


Level 4

Intermediate Modules

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L4
403 Solvents and Additives
£525 non BCF member
£360 BCF member

Module 403, is one of a series at Intermediate level dealing with the raw materials used in surface coatings. It introduces the solvents used in coatings and the additives or modifiers are used to control or modify the performance of coatings. Students requiring a more detailed study of additives should refer to the relevant Advanced level modules.

This module begins by defining solvents, explains how they can be classified and then goes on to describe their characteristic properties.

It then proceeds to a review of additives, starting with those used in the dispersion process of manufacture. Then, additives used to maintain product stability, after manufacture, are described, including both water- and solvent-based products. The general stability, skinning, pigment settlement, moisture absorbers and corrosion inhibitors are dealt with.

L4
404 Media - Introduction and Manufacture of Media
£525 non BCF member
£360 BCF member

Module 404 introduces the different types of media used in surface coatings and how they may be classified. The formation of polymers is described and the mechanism of film formation by non-convertible and convertible media explained. A detailed description of some non-convertible media is given together with some information on their manufacture. This is supplemented by an overview of other non-convertible media.

Two categories of convertible media are discussed in detail, including their manufacture. An overview of other convertible media is then provided.

The final section contains an introduction to water-borne media and how resin polymers may be made water reducible.

L4
405 Non-Convertible Media *
£525 non BCF member
£360 BCF member

In this Intermediate Level Module naturally based and synthetic media are covered in some detail.

After a discussion of the various film forming processes of non-convertible naturally based media ranging from shellac, nitrocellulose, plastisols and bitumens their properties and typical uses are outlined.

The synthetic media described in this Module include acrylics, vinyl copolymer resins and emulsions.

L4
406 Oils, Driers and Oleoresins
£525 non BCF member
£360 BCF member

In this Intermediate Level Module, the major fatty acids found in various vegetable oils are listed. The properties of an oil are shown to derive from the particular combination of fatty acids they contain.

Test methods to determine the properties of oils are given to enable them to be classified with regard to their drying potential.

The importance of driers is stated and the composition and properties of the principal metallic derivatives of synthetic and Naphthenic acids given.

Finally, oleoresinous varnishes are discussed with the distinction between recent and synthetic hard resins being made.

The formulae of resin are shown and the manufacture, composition and characteristics of hard resins obtainable from it are described. Some present day uses for these varnishes are given.

L4
407 Convertible Media - Alkyds and Polyesters *
£525 non BCF member
£360 BCF member

This Intermediate Level Module commences with the important topic of functionality and its significance to polymerisation.

A polyester is described as the reaction product of polyfunctional acids and alcohols and examples given showing the difference between saturated and unsaturated resins.

Alkyds are then discussed and their properties shown to relate to their oil content and the type of oil or fatty acid used. Their modification with vinyl monomers to give additional hardness and with polyamides to give thixotropy are described.

Finally some important methods of introducing water solubility to resins and oils are described.

L4
408 Acrylics and Aminos *
£525 non BCF member
£360 BCF member

In this Intermediate Level Module thermoplastic and thermosetting acrylics are described. The monomers used to make these resins are listed and the significance of monomer choice on polymer hardness is shown.

Of importance are the precaution that must be taken in handling and storage of acrylic monomers and these are given. The preparation of an acrylic resin is outlined and a typical plant to carry this out is illustrated.

Also described are amino resins and their chemical structure.

L4
409 Epoxies and Urethane Resins *
£525 non BCF member
£360 BCF member

In this Intermediate Module it is appropriate to discuss epoxy and urethane resin systems in two separate sections. One being one pack and the other two pack.

Firstly the structure of an epoxy resin molecule is shown and the relationship between an epoxy ester and an oil based alkyd explained. This is followed by a description of urethane prepolymers and the reactions of isocyanates. The manufacture of urethane oils and moisture curing urethanes and typical uses follows.

2 pack applications of epoxy and urethane resins are then discussed. Reference is made to amine and amide curing of epoxies and the hydroxy containing materials capable of reaction with urethane prepolymers. The main characteristics and typical uses of such coatings are finally given.

L4
417 Manufacture – Dispersion
£525 non BCF member
£360 BCF member

This module looks at the dispersion of pigments in media and at the techniques and mechanisms involved. Dispersion is the single most important and time-consuming operation in the manufacture of coatings. Poorly dispersed pigments produce an array of faults including settlement, poor opacity and low gloss in the finished product.

The majority of investigative work in this area has been done using liquid coatings. Here we have included references to dispersion in coating powder media.

L4
418 Manufacture – Flow
£525 non BCF member
£360 BCF member

Flow characteristics are of vital importance in coatings. The rheology of a formulation affects the efficiency of the dispersion process, the stability of the product and its packaging and transport.

During application, flow has to be properly controlled to ensure that the coating is applied correctly and that the film then levels to give the desired finish.

This module expands on the introduction to the subject made in Foundation Module 204 and investigates the key elements, which need to be controlled by formulators, production staff and users alike.


Level 5

Intermediate Modules

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L5
501 Pigments Colour and Dispersion
£575 non BCF member
£415 BCF member

This module is concerned with a number of important aspects of pigments.

In the first section, various ways of describing colour are presented, in scientific terms. Both the Munsell and CIELAB systems are covered and terms such as tristimulus values, 2° and 10° observers, dominant wavelength, L, a, b values and total colour difference are explained.

The second section describes the manufacture and properties of a selection of important inorganic and organic pigments. In particular, a range of coloured organic pigments is dealt with in some detail, along with flow diagrams for the production of TiO2, by two different methods.

In the third section the important area of pigment dispersion stability is studied. This is vital to avoid the process known as pigment flocculation. This is important during coatings manufacture, when a pigment millbase is to be converted into the finished paint and there is a danger of destabilisation of the dispersion.

The efficiency of pigment dispersion is described. This includes a general flow chart for manufacture. The relationship between dispersion efficiency and operating economics of a plant is explained. Finally, the efficiency of various types of dispersion machinery is described in terms of both dispersion time and labour requirements.

L5
502 Evaluation and Specifications
£575 non BCF member
£415 BCF member

This module aims to provide the student with guidelines on how to design a test method which will enable a coating to be produced to meet the full requirements of the customer.

In order to reach this stage we shall be discussing the problems relating to the evaluation of coating films, what is meant by the terms 'standards' and 'test methods' and what could be the important components of the specification.

There have already been a number of modules at Foundation and Intermediate level dealing with test methods, so this module will refer to these, and then add others that may be of help.

The student will be required to produce a suitable test specification as an assignment at the end of the theory material.

L5
503 Formulation – Determining Factors
£575 non BCF member
£415 BCF member

This paper is one of a series of Advanced Modules, which consider various aspects of product formulation.

When formulating a surface coating, the Coatings Chemists will need to take account of a number of outside constraints, any of which may affect the final formulation. For example performance specifications, application techniques and the nature of the substrate must all be taken into consideration when deciding on the optimum surface coatings. Health & Safety or environmental issues increasingly limit that choice.

This Module investigates the various factors affecting the selection of a coating.

Note: It is assumed that the student already has a thorough grounding in the basis of coating technology and an understanding of the chemistry involved.

L5
504 System Components - Decorative Applications
£575 non BCF member
£415 BCF member

Module 504 contains a comprehensive study of the individual coatings used in a coating system. After explaining the basic function/requirements of the individual coatings, the module goes on to give the basic principles used in formulating these coatings, with particular attention to the pigment volume concentration (PVC) concept. Finally, the concept and impact of the “critical pigment volume concentration” (CPVC) is discussed.

As adhesion to the substrate* is usually a critical factor in determining the performance of a coating system, different substrates and their properties are discussed in the first section of the module, particularly mild-steel, wood and plaster.

It should be noted that the module is designed to cover a wide range of possible end requirements, and is therefore written in a general sense. However, the student will be expected to demonstrate an understanding of the concepts explained by carrying out the Assignment-which can be tailored to reflect a topic in which the student (or the students company) may have particular expertise.

* The substrate is the surface onto which a coating is applied.

L5
506 Industrial Coatings for Automotive and Packaging Applications
£575 non BCF member
£415 BCF member

In this Advanced Module the basic formulations requirements of coatings for use on automotives, both original factory finished and for vehicle refinishing, are given.

A typical automotive paint line is described and examples of specifications for paints are given. Formulations of typical paints together with explanations of the components are then given. Under vehicle refinishes formulation requirements the resin types used are outlined with comparisons in performance of different paint systems.

Basic requirements of linings for good and beverage containers are given. The formation of cans is described with descriptions of suitable application methods. Performance requirements of can coatings are listed with reference to a range of typical products they are required to resist. Examples of resin types used in can coatings with comparisons of their properties are listed. The module concludes with the testing and evaluation of the coated cans.

L5
507 Liquid Coatings, Modifiers and Drying
£575 non BCF member
£415 BCF member

Module 507 is one of three advanced modules dealing with additives used in surface coatings. Additives can be considered to be materials which, when added to another substance, improve the overall properties or reduce undesirable properties. In most cases, the level of addition is less than one percent.

This module contains a comprehensive study of certain additives including why they are required and how they work.

In section 1 of the module, factors that affect the dispersion process are discussed. An explanation is given on how certain manufacturing problems are caused and how they can be avoided. Specific topics include "foams" wetting, dispersion, flooding and floating.

Section 2 describes materials that can be classified as stabilisers, with particular attention to "in-can" fungicides, and corrosion preventers.

In the final section, modifiers to the polymerisation process are discussed. In particular, we are referring to the drying process of oil-based alkyds. The drying mechanism is fully explained, and certain "driers" discussed, along with their function and approximate levels of use. Anti-skinning additives are also discussed in some depth.

It should be noted that additives that induce thixotropy (and therefore reduce settlement) are discussed briefly in this section. However, for students wishing to study the subject of "rheology" thoroughly, we would recommend module A08, which contains a greater "in-depth" study of this particular subject.

L5
508 Application and Special Properties
£575 non BCF member
£415 BCF member

Module 508 is one of three advanced level modules dealing with additives used in surface coatings. Additives can be considered to be materials which, when added to another substance, improve the overall properties or reduces undesirable properties.

This module discusses the reasons for controlling the viscosity of a coating to aid its application properties and the types of additives used for this purpose. It then goes on to explain the types of additive used to control or promote flow.

After this, the need to control the conductivity of paints to be applied by electrostatic methods is considered and the special problems associated with the addition and stability of conductivity controllers discussed. Types of conductivity controller are then listed.

The module then explains why reodorants are sometimes used in coatings and examples of commercially available products of this type are given.

A discussion on flash point modifiers is followed by a list of typical classes of these products and a discussion of their merits provided.

Finally, the nature and use of fire-retardant and intumescent coatings are discussed with regard to their special properties.

L5
509 Appearance and Properties
£575 non BCF member
£415 BCF member

The first Section of this advanced module is concerned with additives which modify the appearance of dry films e.g. finishes such as hammer and wrinkle. We go on to study the various types of surface-active agents which are so important in determining the properties of dispersions. Also in the Section, we look at the importance of anti-foams, texturing agents and matting agents. The problem of gas checking and ways of overcoming it are also discussed.

In Section 2, we turn to additives used to modify the properties of dry films. Additives such as adhesion promoters, heat stabilisers, lubricants, anti-scuff agents anti-fouling additives and other biocides, corrosion inhibitors and finally, ultra-violet absorbers.

The final Section is devoted to film plasticisers. Here we look generally at the background, the effect of plasticisers on film strength, flexibility and hardness. Finally, the various types of plasticiser are covered in some detail, including their chemical formulae.

L5
510 Urethane and Amino Resins*
£575 non BCF member
£415 BCF member

In this Advanced Module Polyurethane Resins and Amino Resins are discussed in more detail than in Intermediate Modules 509 and 508 respectively.

Described are the structure of isocyanate monomers and the preparation of pre-polymers from them. Also discussed are the hazards involved in the handling and use of isocyanates. Their use in the preparation of the 5 major types of urethane coatings is explained. Their characteristics and applications are then discussed.

The functional groups in amino resins based on urea and melamine are shown and the structure of benzoguanamine given. Applications of these amino resins are given.

L5
511 Epoxy, Acrylic and Water Reducible Resins*
£575 non BCF member
£415 BCF member

In this Advanced Module Epoxy Resins and Acrylic Resins are discussed in more detail than in Intermediate Modules 408 and 409 respectively.

In the section on epoxy resins, methods of quoting epoxide content of a resin is explained together with the significance of 'oil length' of an epoxy ester. Reactions between epoxy resins and phenolic, amino and polyamide resins and with amines are also described.

The section on acrylic resins concentrates on thermosetting resins and the monomers required in their formulation.

Also in this Module is a section on water reducible resins including emulsions and methods of making solutions of different types of resin with varying degrees of water reducibility or solubility.

L5
512 Water Borne Coatings*
£575 non BCF member
£415 BCF member

Water-borne products, coatings with water as the main volatile component. The growing importance of this type of coating has resulted in a demand for a module dealing specifically with water-borne coatings. This unit is designed to meet this demand.

The module summarises the existing technology involved in the formulation, manufacture, and use of water-borne coatings and includes possible future developments.

It begins by discussing the history of water-borne coatings, explains the reasons for their increasing use, and describes their general properties in comparison with non-water borne products.

Relevant legislation relating to the volatile content of coatings is referred to and explained.

The module continues with a discussion on the principal methods available to make water-borne film formers for use in coatings before describing specific types of water-borne coating, their properties, and their applications. These discussions include both solution and dispersion types.

The final section is devoted to possible future trends.

L5
513 Thermosetting Coating Powders*
£575 non BCF member
£415 BCF member

This module investigates the various media used to manufacture thermosetting coating powders, the chemistry involved and some of the important factors that affect the formulation process.

Special attention is paid to the use of additives in optimising the manufacture, application and performance of the products. The final Section considers recent innovations such as thin films powders and those systems cured by combined IR/UV radiation or other low temperature techniques.

Note: it is assumed that the student already has a thorough grounding in powder technology and some understanding of basic chemistry.

Module 207 gives an overview of Powder Coatings and Module 311 describes the more common resin systems used in their manufacture

It is expected that it will take approximately 8-10 hours to complete this module, including the practical work involved.

L5
514 Coating Powders – Manufacture
£575 non BCF member
£415 BCF member

Here we investigate in depth some of the important factors that need to be controlled when making thermosetting powders. To keep products and processes within specification, coating chemists and production staff need to think on their feet recognising and correcting quality issues as they arise.

We also discuss the design and layout of a production unit and the economics of the process.

Note: It is assumed that the student already has a thorough grounding in the basics of powder manufacturing technology. Module 207 gives an overview of powder coatings and 327 expands on the manufacturing processes.

L5
515 Thin Film Intumescent Coatings for Fire Protection of Steel Structures
£575 non BCF member
£415 BCF member

This advanced level module deals with thin film intumescent coatings used for the fire protection of steel surfaces. It commences with an explanation of what we mean by an intumescent coating, and introduces the generic raw material types typically used in the formulation of both water-based and solvent-based coatings. This is followed by an indication of how these coatings are tested.

The application of these products is then discussed before proceeding to a comparison of various forms of fire protection. The final section of the module provides a summary of the subject of thin film intumescents.

This module is intended for anyone requiring an understanding of intumescent coatings whether they are the formulator or other laboratory personnel, raw-material supplier, applicator, salesperson architect or specifier - or indeed anyone with an interest in the subject!

The module is designed to cover a wide range of topics associated with thin-film intumescents and, dpending on their needs and background, some students may find some sections more useful or appropriate than others.

As the module is set at advanced level, we would expect the student to have some knowledge of chemistry and physics and some basic knowledge of intumescents.

Note: Intumescent coatings are introduced in the intermediate level module 403, where raw materials used specifically in intumescents are discussed under the umbrella of "additives".

L5
516 General Overview of Inkjet
£575 non BCF member
£415 BCF member

The inkjet is a non-contact printing technology in which the droplets get ejected through the small orifices onto the substrate. It is a digital technology as the image to be printed is normally kept in a digital format.
DOD (PIJ, TIJ, VIJ) - Drop On Demand
CIJ - Continuous InkJet
Initially, inkjet DOD printing dominated SOHO printing markets, but with the printing of the photos and documents disappearing, this market is rapidly declining with inkjet getting a more and more significant role in commercial/business printing applications. It is displacing silkscreen, rotary screen & offset applications and with an increase of the speed even dome flexo applications. Inkjet has been used for a long time in variable data printing such as date, coding, naming, addressing, barcoding and postal applications but now it is overtaking wide format poster and product decoration textile, ceramic tiles, wallpaper, laminates, furniture applications. It is quickly becoming a preferred technique for digital presses. Full-colour packaging, printed electronics are some of the examples where inkjet has proven itself as a reliable technology.

L5
599 Advanced Level Formulation Project
£575 non BCF member
£415 BCF member

Advanced Level Formulation Project. This is intended as the very last exercise for anyone wishing to achieve the FULL technical certificate in coatings at Level 5. This module must be selected as one of the six modules. The student will carry out a piece of work - a project - involving all of the procedures explained throughout earlier modules.

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